Martin Behaim created "the Erdapfel" (which means "earth apple," or "potato"), the oldest surviving terrestrial globe, between 14.
Important writing includes Giovanni Pico della Mirandola's "900 Theses," interpretations of ancient religious myths for which he was branded a heretic, but survived because of the Medicis support.
Rodrigo Borgia was appointed Pope Alexander VI in 1492, a rule considered broadly corrupt, and he had Savonarola excommunicated, tortured, and killed in 1498.
The Italian Wars involved most of the major states of Western Europe in a series of conflicts beginning in 1494, the year the French king Charles VIII invaded Italy.
However, the roots of the Renaissance go back a few centuries further yet.In 1453, the Ottoman Empire conquered Constantinople, compelling many Greek thinkers and their works to move westward.That same year, the Hundred Years War ended, bringing stability to northwestern Europe.Modern historians continue to look further and further into the past to understand its origins. Ironically, by killing a large percentage of the population, the plague improved the economy, allowing wealthy people to invest in art and display, and engage in secular scholarly study.Francesco Petrarch, the Italian humanist and poet called the father of the Renaissance, died in 1374.
Sixtus IV was appointed Pope in 1471, continuing the major building projects in Rome, including the Sistine Chapel.