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Federal regulations specify the details and requirements necessary to implement and to enforce legislation enacted by Congress. The APA generally requires agencies to provide public notice and seek comment prior to enacting new regulations. Congress may use a variety of processes as part of its oversight of agency action, including holding hearings or informal meetings, issuing reports, or adopting legislation. Chapter 8), may review and choose to reject new regulations issued by Federal agencies. The Federal Register is the official daily publication for agency rules, proposed rules, and notices of Federal agencies and organizations, as well as for Executive Orders and other presidential documents. The Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA, pronounced "oh-eye-ruh") is a Federal office that Congress established in the 1980 Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U. In addition to reviewing government collections of information from the public under the Paperwork Reduction Act, OIRA reviews draft proposed and final regulations under Executive Order 12866 and develops and oversees the implementation of government-wide policies in the areas of information policy, privacy, and statistical policy. The Office of the Administrator was created by Congress when it established OIRA in the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980. The objectives of the Executive Order are to enhance planning and coordination with respect to both new and existing regulations; to reaffirm the primacy of Federal agencies in the regulatory decision-making process; to restore the integrity and legitimacy of regulatory review and oversight; and to make the process more accessible and open to the public. On January 18, 2011, President Obama issued Executive Order 13563, which emphasizes the importance of protecting "public health, safety and our environment while promoting economic growth, innovation, competitiveness, and job creation." Executive Order 13563 points to the need for predictability and for certainty, and for use of the least burdensome tools for achieving regulatory ends.The APA also lays out the process for judicial review of rules in federal court. In addition, Congress, through the Congressional Review Act (CRA) (5 U. The CRA requires Federal agencies to submit all new final rules to both the House and Senate. The Federal Register is published by the Office of the Federal Register within the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). OIRA also oversees agency implementation of the Information Quality Act, including the peer review practices of agencies. The Administrator is nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. For all significant regulatory actions, the Executive Order requires OIRA review before the actions take effect. It indicates that agencies "must take into account benefits and costs, both quantitative and qualitative." Executive 13563 reaffirms the principles, structures, and definitions in Executive Order 12866, which has long governed regulatory review.Among other things, the Dashboard graphically displays regulatory actions under review by agency, length of review, economic significance, and stage of rulemaking.

Such a return does not necessarily imply that either OIRA or OMB is opposed to the draft rule.This guidance was designed to assist regulatory agencies by defining good regulatory analysis and by standardizing the measurement and reporting of the benefits and costs of Federal regulatory actions. You can find OIRA's annual report to Congress on the costs and benefits of Federal rules at: https:// . OIRA is part of the Executive Office of the President; are OIRA employees political appointees of the President? All OIRA professionals possess graduate level degrees and have historically come from backgrounds in economics, law, policy analysis, statistics, and information technology.Before finalizing this Circular, OMB subjected a draft to peer review and solicited public comments. Does OIRA provide summary information on the costs and benefits of significant regulatory actions.? With the growth of science-based regulation and information-quality issues, several staff also have expertise in public health, toxicology, epidemiology, engineering, and other technical fields. Does OIRA talk to or meet with particular interest groups during review of its rules? OIRA's policy is to meet with any party interested in discussing issues on a rule under review, whether they are from State or local governments, small business or other business interests, or from the environmental, health, or safety communities.Any written material received from outside parties on rules under review is placed on the OIRA website.After a regulatory action is published in the Federal Register, OIRA will make publicly available certain documents exchanged between OIRA and the rulemaking agency during the review period. How can outside parties best make their ideas about rules under review known to OIRA? The best way to participate in rulemaking is to submit comments directly to the agency during the proposed rule stage.

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First, agencies are directed to promote public participation, in part through making relevant documents available on the to promote transparency and comment.