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Group differences were tested, and associations with current symptom domains were examined.Results: Significant group differences were not observed for lifetime cumulative events, though CHR trended toward endorsing more events and greater stress severity.This is especially impactful when exposure occurs during critical neurodevelopmental periods [3,4].Though this is well understood, scales assessing exposure to environmental stressors during development are scarce for Clinical High Risk for Psychosis (CHR) populations.Assessing Developmental Environmental Risk Factor Exposure in Clinical High Risk for Psychosis Individuals: Preliminary Results Using the Individual and Structural Exposure to Stress in Psychosis-Risk States Scale Department of Psychology, Department of Psychiatry, Department of Medical Social Sciences, Institute for Innovations in Developmental Sciences, Institute for Policy Research, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USAIntroduction: Exposure to cumulative environmental risk factors across development has been linked to a host of adverse health/functional outcomes.This perspective incorporating information regarding exposure at differing developmental periods is lacking in research surrounding individuals at Clinical High Risk (CHR) for developing a psychotic disorder.
Ultimately, it is a necessary future direction for targeting prevention and intervention efforts.
For example, according to the National Center for Children in Poverty, in 2010 20% of American children under 6 years of age had experienced 3 or more developmental risk factors, and 41% had experienced 1–2 risks .
Compared to single stressor/risk factor models, cumulative environmental risk models are also beneficial in that they avoid problems surrounding overestimation of the impact of a singular risk factor (which may often be correlated with exposure to other risk factors in an individual) .
A central proposed mechanism for this relation is chronic exposure to stress compromising neural systems underlying affect regulation and executive function, along with neuroendocrine systems including the Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal (HPA) axis [23,25,26,27,28,29].
Given the marked putative association between environmental risk exposure and symptom progression in psychosis, it is critical to further understand its role prior to psychotic illness onset during the prodromal stage.
For stress severity across development, there were trending group differences for the 11–13 age range, and significant group differences for the 14–18 age range; notably, comparisons for earlier time points did not approach statistical significance.